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About Jordan

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, located at the crossroads of civilizations, boasts a rich heritage despite its youth. With a history dating back millennia, its strategic importance as a trade hub has attracted empires like the Nabataeans, Greeks, Romans, and Ottomans. These influences have left their mark on Jordan's landscape and culture. Moreover, Jordan's population reflects its diverse history, with Arabs living alongside Circassians, Chechens, Armenians, Kurds, and Bosnians. Since its inception in 1946, waves of immigrants from Palestine, Iraq, and Syria have further enriched its cultural fabric. In the modern era, Jordan stands as a testament to harmony and coexistence, blending tradition with progress. It serves as an oasis of peace in a tumultuous region, embracing both its ancient past and contemporary advancements. Jordan's story is one of resilience and adaptation, where the echoes of its past reverberate through its bustling cities and serene landscapes, offering a glimpse into its enduring spirit.

Fast Facts

Official Name:

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Independence Day:

May 25, 1946

Government Type:

Constitutional Monarchy

Current Monarchs:

King Abdullah II, Queen Rania




Approximately 10.492 million

Official Language:

Arabic; English is widely spoken 

Electricity Standard:


Religious Composition:

Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 6%, Miscellaneous 2%

International Airports:

Queen Alia in Amman, King Hussein in Aqaba

Lowest Point:

Dead Sea (-408m)

Highest Point:

Umm ad Dam (Rum) (1,854m)

Time Zone:

UTC +2


Jordanian Dinar (JD) and fils. Coins: 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 fils. Notes: JD1, 5, 10, 20, and 50.


Also known as “The City of Brotherly Love”, Amman is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. This capital city is a blend of both modern and traditional cultures and one doesn’t have to look far to experience the best of both worlds.

  • Historical
    The Citadle:
    Towering above downtown Amman, the ancient Citadel is a good place to begin a tour of the archaeological sites of the city. It is the site of ancient Rabbath-Ammon and excavations there have revealed numerous Roman, Byzantine and early Islamic remains. The Roman Theatre:
    An imposing monument set into the side of the mountain. Its 33 rows of seats can accommodate almost 6000 spectators. The theatre, which dates back to approximately the mid 2nd century AD, comes back to life with musical and dance performances held regularly under the moonlit summer skies. Hercules Temple:
    Situated on the Amman Citadel, the Temple of Hercules is a Roman temple dating back to the 2nd century AD. While only a few columns remain standing today, it offers panoramic views of the surrounding city and landscape.
  • Cultural
    Jordan Museum:
    In Ras Al-Ein district, it's the country's largest museum, offering a rich history and archaeology. Exhibits range from prehistoric times to modern era, featuring Dead Sea Scrolls and Petra artifacts.
    Royal automobile museum:
    At Al Hussein Public Parks, it showcases classic cars and motorcycles from Jordan's royal family, shedding light on automotive history and Jordan's progress
    Jordan Folklore Museum:
    Housed within the Roman Theater complex, it unveils Jordan's traditional culture through exhibits on clothing, crafts, music, and household items.
  • Religious
    King Abdullah I Mosque:
    Amman's iconic mosque, named after King Abdullah I, reflects Jordan's Islamic heritage with its blue dome and minarets. Inside, elegant décor offers a serene atmosphere for reflection, while the mosque fosters interfaith dialogue through various initiatives.
    Abu Darwish Mosque:
    The black and white mosque, commissioned in 1961 by King Hussein of Jordan and Mustafa Jakazi, sits atop Jebel Al-Ashrafiyeh. It offers stunning views of Amman from a plaza with seating areas. While the main prayer area is reserved for Friday prayers, visitors can admire the impressive exterior design.
  • King Abdullah I Mosque

    Down Town

  • Roman Theater

    Down Town

  • Abu Darwish Mosque

    Jebel Al-Ashrafiyeh

  • Amman City

    Jordan's Capital

  • The Citadel

    Down Town


Ajloun is just a short journey from Jerash through pine forest and olive groves and boasts scores of ancient sites, including water mills, forts and villages, all in the beautiful hills and valleys of north Jordan.

  • The Castle

    The castle was built by one of Saladin's generals in 1184 AD to control the iron mines of Ajloun. It was also used to defend the area from Crusader invasions. As part of a chain of forts, beacons were lit at night to pass signals from the Euphrates to as far as Cairo. The hill on which the castle sits, Jabal Auf, is a perfect location, offering bird’s-eye views over the surrounding countryside and over three major wadis leading to the Jordan Valley.

  • The Reserve

    The reserve was first established in 1988 by the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature. It comprises 13 square kilometers of rolling Mediterranean woodlands filled with oak, pistachio, pine, carob, strawberry trees and olive groves. There are several hiking trails where on any given day there is an opportunity to catch a glimpse of its amazing array of wildlife: foxes, badgers, wild boar, striped hyena, and wild cats as well as impressive collection of bird species. There is also a special area for camping.

  • King Abdullah I Mosque

    Down Town

  • Roman Theater

    Down Town

  • Abu Darwish Mosque

    Jebel Al-Ashrafiyeh


Aqaba, a bustling hub since the 10th century, served pilgrims and facilitated trade routes, notably for copper ore from Wadi Araba. It boasted a cosmopolitan character, as evidenced by artifacts like Chinese ceramics and Ethiopian coins. Successive civilizations utilized its strategic location, and the discovery of a late-3rd-century church reflects its prosperity and adaptability.

  • Historical

    Aqaba Fort (Mamluk Castle):
    Also known as Aqaba Fort, this ancient structure, built between 1510 and 1517, initially served as a khan for pilgrims en route to Mecca. Throughout the Ottoman era, it stood as a symbol of strength and hospitality. However, it faced British bombardment in 1917 during World War I, leaving scars on its walls. The Hashemite coat of arms above the entrance commemorates the role of the Arab Revolt in expelling Ottoman forces. Adjacent to the fortress stands the Aqaba Flagpole, symbolizing the triumph of Arab liberation.

  • Marine

    Aqaba Marine Park:
    Explore the vibrant underwater world through snorkeling or diving in the Marine Park. It’s home to colorful coral reefs and diverse marine life.

    Red Sea Aquarium:
    Get up close with marine life from the Red Sea, including sharks, turtles, and exotic fish. The aquarium provides an educational experience for visitors of all ages.

    Diving and Snorkeling:
    Aqaba is renowned for its diving and snorkeling spots, with sites like the Japanese Garden and Cedar Pride wreck offering unforgettable underwater experiences.

  • Other Attractions

    Aqaba Archaeological Museum:
    Learn about the rich history of the region, including exhibits showcasing artifacts from Aqaba's past, such as pottery, coins, and sculptures.

    Aqaba Bird Observatory:
    In 2003, the Jordanian Society for Sustainable Development (JSSD) established birdwatching lagoons at a natural waste-water purification plant. These lagoons, home to over 150 bird species, including 90 migratory ones, attract birdwatchers worldwide. Not far away, the Aqaba Flagpole Plaza boasts one of the world's tallest free-standing flagpoles, offering stunning views of the area.

  • Aqaba Resorts

  • Southren Beach

  • Aqaba sunset

  • Aqaba Reef

  • Parasailing Aqaba

Azraq Reserve

Established in 1988 by the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature, this wetland reserve is expected to be added to the UNESCO list. It is located in the eastern desert and is a magnet for migratory birds. From December through March, large flocks of birds, such as Temmiink's Horned Lark, Desert Lark, Hoopoe Lark, Desert Wheatear and Trumpeter Finch, Cranes, and Imperial Eagles, make their way from Europe to Africa. Leisurely hike the Marsh Trail, a 1.5KM pathway meandering though the towering reeds. Along the way take time to stop at the mud-brick "rustic bird hide", overlooking one of the reserve's lagoons and stop at Shishan springs where a handy platform extends out over the lagoon. Upon leaving the reserve, visit the local workshop where women from the local community produce finely painted ostrich eggs, silk-screened t-shirts, and range of other hand crafted items.

  • The Reserve

    Azraq Oasis:
    Once a significant water source in the desert, the Azraq Oasis has diminished over time due to over-pumping and diversion. However, remnants of this oasis still exist within the reserve, offering a glimpse into the area's ecological history..

    Seasonal Wetlands:
    The reserve is characterized by its seasonal wetlands, which fluctuate in size and water levels depending on the time of year. These wetlands serve as crucial habitats for various species of birds, amphibians, and other wildlife.

    Flora and Fauna::
    The reserve is home to a diverse range of plant and animal species adapted to desert and wetland environments. Notable species include the rare Azraq Killifish, which is endemic to the area, and the Azraq Toad, which relies on the reserve's wetlands for breeding.

  • Observatory

    Visitors can explore the reserve via a network of trails that wind through different habitats, providing opportunities for hiking and wildlife observation. These trails vary in length and difficulty, catering to visitors of all ages and fitness levels.

    Observation Points:
    TStrategically located observation points offer panoramic views of the reserve, allowing visitors to observe wildlife and appreciate the natural beauty of the surrounding landscape

    Birdwatching Opportunities:
    The Azraq Wetland Reserve is a haven for birdwatchers, particularly during the migration seasons when thousands of birds pass through the area. Visitors can spot a wide variety of bird species, including waterfowl, raptors, and songbirds.

  • Programs

    Educational Programs:
    The reserve offers educational programs and guided tours led by knowledgeable staff members. These programs provide insights into the reserve's ecology, conservation efforts, and cultural significance.

    Eco-tours are available for visitors interested in exploring the reserve's unique ecosystems and learning about sustainable practices. These tours may include guided walks, birdwatching excursions, and visits to cultural sites within the reserve.


Bethany-beyond-the-Jordan, an archaeological site, is a significant biblical discovery. Since 1996, excavations have uncovered over 20 churches, caves, and baptismal pools dating back to Roman and Byzantine times. It's believed to be where John the Baptist lived, Jesus was baptized, and where the first five apostles met. Some also link it to the Prophet Elijah's ascension. The path to the Jordan River transforms into a lush oasis, echoing Prophet Jeremiah's description. Recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2015, it preserves the region's rich archaeological heritage.

  • Historical

    Baptismal Pools:
    Archaeological digs have uncovered ancient baptismal pools from the Roman and Byzantine periods, believed to be where Jesus Christ was baptized by John the Baptist. These pools draw pilgrims seeking the sacred experience of immersion.

    Ancient Churches:
    Remnants of ancient churches have been discovered within the site, providing evidence of early Christian communities that existed in the region. These churches served as places of worship and pilgrimage for early Christians and are an important part of the site's archaeological heritage.

    Jordan River::
    Bethany sits on the eastern bank of the Jordan River, a natural border between Jordan and Israel. According to Christian tradition, it's where Jesus Christ was baptized, making the river highly significant. Pilgrims often partake in symbolic baptisms or vow renewals in its waters.

  • Cultural

    Cultural Heritage Preservation:
    Bethany's preservation of ancient sites like churches and baptismal pools from Roman and Byzantine times is vital for understanding early Christian communities and the region's cultural history.

    Cross-Cultural Pilgrimage Destination:
    Bethany is a cross-cultural pilgrimage site on the Jordan River, attracting visitors from diverse backgrounds for religious ceremonies and fostering interfaith dialogue.

    Cultural Exchange Hub:
    Bethany fosters cultural exchange through tours, education, and events, promoting mutual respect and understanding among diverse visitors, and contributing to global peace and tolerance.

  • Religious

    Christian Significance:
    Bethany, on the Jordan River, holds deep religious significance for Christians worldwide, symbolizing the beginning of Jesus Christ's ministry. Pilgrims from diverse backgrounds come to participate in ceremonies, especially baptism, representing spiritual purification and rebirth.

    Islamic Importance:
    Bethany is important in Islam as well, revered as the place where the Prophet Elijah ascended to heaven. This adds to its interfaith significance, making it a revered pilgrimage destination for multiple faiths.

Dana Reserve

This hidden gem is an eco-tourist’s dream and also a destination for adventurers, history buffs, archaeologists, hikers, and nature lovers. It is the largest reserve in Jordan and includes a variety of unique terrain ranging from sandstone cliffs over 1700m high to a low point of 50m below sea level and contains four eco-systems (Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian, Saharo Arabian, and Sudanian penetration). For this reason, Dana now has achieved official ‘biodiversity reserve’ status and is under review to be added to the UNESCO World Heritage List.

  • The Reserve

    Dana Nature Reserve:
    This refers specifically to the protected area designated by the Jordanian government to conserve the natural environment and wildlife of the region. The Dana Nature Reserve is renowned for its diverse ecosystems, including mountains, Wadis (valleys), and desert landscapes. It serves as a sanctuary for various plant and animal species, some of which are rare or endangered. The primary focus of the Dana Nature Reserve is on biodiversity conservation and ecotourism, providing opportunities for visitors to experience the unique natural beauty of the area while minimizing environmental impact.

    Dana Biosphere Reserve:
    The Dana Biosphere Reserve encompasses not only the Dana Nature Reserve but also a larger area surrounding it. It is a UNESCO-designated biosphere reserve, recognized for its significant ecological, cultural, and socio-economic value. In addition to the conservation of biodiversity, the Dana Biosphere Reserve also aims to promote sustainable development and maintain the traditional lifestyles of local communities. As such, it incorporates not only conservation efforts but also initiatives related to cultural preservation, community engagement, and sustainable resource management.

  • The Nature

    Biodiversity Hotspot:
    Within the Dana Biosphere Reserve lies a treasure trove of biodiversity, encompassing a wide range of ecosystems and habitats. Explore the diverse flora and fauna that call Dana home, from the elusive Nubian ibex and Syrian wolf to the rare Persian leopard. Discuss the importance of biodiversity conservation within the reserve, highlighting ongoing efforts to protect endangered species and preserve critical habitats. Additionally, delve into the unique adaptations of plants and animals to the harsh desert environment, showcasing the resilience of life in this arid landscape.

    Geological Marvels:
    The geological formations of Dana Biosphere Reserve offer a glimpse into the earth's turbulent history, with towering cliffs, winding canyons, and ancient rock formations shaping the landscape. Delve into the geological processes that have sculpted the reserve over millions of years, from the uplifting of sedimentary layers to the erosive forces of wind and water. Explore iconic landmarks such as the Dana Valley and the Great Rift Valley, unraveling the geological stories etched into their rocky surfaces. Additionally, examine the role of Geotourism in promoting awareness of geological heritage and fostering sustainable development within the reserve.

  • Cultural

    Bedouin Heritage:
    The Bedouin communities have inhabited the lands of Dana Biosphere Reserve for centuries, forging a deep connection with the desert landscape and its natural rhythms. Explore the traditional Bedouin way of life, from nomadic herding practices to intricate handicrafts passed down through generations. Discuss the cultural significance of Dana as a gathering place for Bedouin tribes, where stories are shared around campfires and ancient traditions are celebrated. Additionally, examine the role of community-based tourism initiatives in preserving Bedouin heritage and fostering sustainable livelihoods within the reserve.

    Archaeological Treasures:
    Nestled within the rugged terrain of Dana Biosphere Reserve lie archaeological sites that offer glimpses into Jordan's rich history and cultural heritage. Explore ancient Nabatean settlements, Byzantine churches, and Ottoman-era forts scattered throughout the reserve, each bearing witness to the diverse civilizations that have called this land home. Discuss ongoing archaeological research and conservation efforts within Dana, aimed at preserving these cultural treasures for future generations. Additionally, examine the role of heritage tourism in promoting awareness of Jordan's archaeological heritage and generating economic benefits for local communities.

  • Dana

    The Old Village

Dead Sea

The Dead Sea is most famous for being “the lowest point on earth”. Lying some 400 meters below sea level, it is 75 kilometers long and from 6 to 16 kilometers wide. It is fed by the Jordan River, but it has no outlet, and due to the high evaporation rate, the water holds a tremendous amount of salt (33%) – so much that swimmers float on the surface without even trying. This natural spa wonder has fascinated people for thousands of years, and today people from all over the world come to enjoy its soothing therapeutic and medicinal properties.

  • Historical

    Ancient Civilizations and Biblical References:
    Explore the historical significance of the Dead Sea in the context of ancient civilizations such as the Sumerians, Egyptians, and Canaanites. Discuss its mention in various ancient texts, including the Bible, where it is referred to as the "Salt Sea" or "Sea of the Arabah," and its significance in religious narratives and traditions.

    Historical Trade and Economic Importance:
    Investigate the role of the Dead Sea as a vital trade route and economic hub throughout history. Discuss the development of trade routes connecting the Dead Sea region to ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean world, and the economic significance of the Dead Sea's salt and mineral resources for ancient societies.

    Archaeological Discoveries and Ancient Sites::
    Examine the archaeological evidence and discoveries associated with the Dead Sea region, including ancient settlements, fortresses, and religious sites. Highlight notable archaeological sites such as the ancient city of Jericho, Qumran (famous for the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls), and the ruins of Masada, shedding light on the rich history and cultural heritage of the area

  • Cultural

    Cultural and Religious Significance:
    Explore the cultural and religious significance of the Dead Sea in various traditions and belief systems. Discuss its mention in ancient religious texts, such as the Bible and the Quran, and its role in religious narratives and rituals. Explore pilgrimage sites and religious landmarks associated with the Dead Sea region, and the spiritual significance attributed to its unique geographical features.

    Traditional Bedouin Culture and Lifestyle:
    Examine the cultural heritage of the Bedouin communities that have inhabited the Dead Sea region for centuries. Discuss traditional Bedouin customs, crafts, and lifestyle practices, including camel herding, tent dwelling, and nomadic traditions. Explore the rich oral traditions, folklore, and storytelling traditions of the Bedouin people, and their connection to the land and natural environment of the Dead Sea.

    Archaeological Heritage:
    Investigate the archaeological heritage and historical sites scattered throughout the Dead Sea region. Highlight ancient ruins, archaeological sites, and cultural landmarks dating back to various periods of history, including the ancient city of Jericho, the ruins of Qumran (site of the Dead Sea Scrolls discovery), and the fortress of Masada. Discuss ongoing archaeological research and conservation efforts aimed at preserving and interpreting the cultural heritage of the Dead Sea region for future generations.

  • Wellness

    Therapeutic Properties of Dead Sea Minerals:
    Explore the therapeutic benefits of the minerals found in the Dead Sea, such as magnesium, potassium, and bromine. Discuss how these minerals are believed to have healing properties for various skin conditions, respiratory ailments, and rheumatic disorders. Highlight scientific research and anecdotal evidence supporting the efficacy of Dead Sea minerals in promoting wellness and alleviating symptoms of certain medical conditions.

    Dead Sea Mud and Skincare:
    Investigate the use of Dead Sea mud in skincare products and spa treatments. Discuss the unique composition of Dead Sea mud, which is rich in minerals and organic matter, and its role in detoxifying, exfoliating, and nourishing the skin. Explore the popularity of Dead Sea mud masks, body wraps, and bath salts in the beauty and wellness industry, and the potential benefits for improving skin texture, tone, and overall complexion.

    Wellness Tourism and Dead Sea Resorts:
    Examine the rise of wellness tourism in the Dead Sea region and the development of luxury resorts and spa facilities offering specialized wellness programs and treatments. Discuss the allure of the Dead Sea's natural surroundings, mineral-rich waters, and therapeutic climate for wellness seekers seeking relaxation, rejuvenation, and holistic healing experiences. Highlight notable Dead Sea resorts, wellness retreats, and spa destinations, and the diverse range of wellness activities and services available to visitors.

Desert Castles

The Desert Castles of Jordan stand as remarkable remnants of the Umayyad dynasty's reign, offering profound insights into the history, architecture, and cultural landscape of the region. Dating back to the 7th and 8th centuries AD, these structures were more than mere fortresses; they served as multifaceted complexes, fulfilling various roles ranging from hunting lodges to agricultural estates. The Umayyad rulers, known for their ambitious building projects, constructed these castles as symbols of their power and influence in the eastern desert of Jordan.

  • The History

    Castles Backgroun:
    Constructed during the Umayyad dynasty's rule of the Islamic Caliphate from 661 to 750 AD, embody a rich historical legacy. Serving multifaceted roles as retreats for caliphs, way stations for travelers, and centers for agricultural production, these structures reflect the diverse functions and strategic significance of the era. The Umayyad rulers, renowned for their ambitious building endeavors, left an indelible mark with the Desert Castles, showcasing the zenith of their architectural prowess. These edifices stand as enduring testaments to the Umayyad dynasty's cultural and political influence, offering valuable insights into the dynamics of power, commerce, and society during this pivotal period in history.

  • The Features

    The Desert Castles hold immense significance as repositories of Jordan's rich heritage and historical legacy. These sites offer valuable insights into the lifestyle, economy, and cultural practices of the Umayyad period, providing a window into the past for contemporary scholars and visitors alike. Moreover, they serve as tangible reminders of Jordan's pivotal role as a crossroads of civilizations, bridging the gap between the Arabian Peninsula and the Mediterranean world. Through their preservation and promotion, the Desert Castles contribute to the appreciation and understanding of Jordan's diverse cultural heritage, bolstering the country's tourism industry and fostering a sense of pride and connection to its past.

    The Desert Castles represent a fusion of diverse influences, reflecting the cultural melting pot of the region. Constructed predominantly with limestone, these edifices showcase a blend of Roman, Byzantine, Persian, and Arab architectural styles. From the imposing facades of Qasr Kharana and Qasr Mushatta to the intricate mosaics and frescoes adorning Qasr Amra, each castle exhibits unique features that highlight the craftsmanship and artistic prowess of the Umayyad era. The elaborate decorations and structural elements not only served functional purposes but also conveyed the sophistication and grandeur of Umayyad society.

  • The Castles

    Qasr A-Kharrana:
    At first sight the construction appears to be a fortified castle, but in fact it was a palace used as a caravan station, built in 710 -715 AD during the reign of Al Waleed bin Abdelmalik. The palace consisted of two stories; they used the lower one as stables for horses, camels and other animals, while the upper storey contained housing units for the traders. The total number of all the rooms in both stories was 61: the lower had 25 and the upper 36.

    Qasr Amra:
    Amra is one of the best-preserved castles and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was built by the Umayyad’s in the eastern Jordanian desert, as a place for hunting and relaxation for the caliphs. Its interior walls and ceilings are covered with lively frescoes, and two of the rooms are paved with colorful mosaics.

    Qasr al-Azraq:
    This castle is one of the biggest desert castles and constructed out of black basalt. In some books it is known as the "Blue Castle" because of the dark blue colors and flashes that come from the basaltic stone. Because of its strategic location close to the borders of several countries and near a water supply, the site has been occupied by many different civilizations, including the Umayyads, Ayyubids and Ottomans. It was made famous during World War I, when T. E. Lawrence, better known as Lawrence of Arabia, used the castle as his military base during the Arab Revolt against the Turks.

  • The Castles

    Qasr Al-Mushatta:
    Visually striking because of the orange colored fired bricks used in its construction, this castle had a strategic location on the trade routes from the east to the west of Jordan. It is under review to be added to the UNESCO World Heritage List.

    Qasr A-Tuba:
    Started during the time of Walid the second (744 AD), it was designed as a place where travellers along the caravan route could rest from the day’s journey. It was built of large square, fired bricks, placed on stone foundations, and the very thick walls make this palace one of the outstanding palaces in the region.

    Qasr Al-Hallabat:
    Built by the Romans between 198-217 AD, this castle was originally used as a defense against raiding desert tribes. Hallabat once boasted elaborate baths, intricate frescoes and mosaics, a mosque and several reservoirs. With a fair proportion of masonry still standing, and some beautifully restored archways, this fort is an excellent example of the desert castles of the region.

  • The Desert Castles

    Qasr A-Kharrana

  • The Desert Castles

    Qasr al-Azraq

  • The Desert Castles

    Qasr Amra


Feynan is an isolated rural community in Wadi Araba and is best known for its world-class eco-lodge. It is build entirely of local materials and reflects a unique arabesque design. The local architect incorporated traditional adobe building techniques and produced a functional, romantic atmosphere that blends in with its surroundings. It’s powered by day using solar energy and lit at night be candles produced by the local Bedouin women. It is run and staffed entirely by the local people.

  • Historical

    During the Copper Age, Feynan in present-day Jordan likely played a vital role in copper extraction, processing, and trade. Its geological landscape with copper deposits attracted settlements, using basic mining techniques. Metallurgical advancements enabled the extraction of pure copper, while Feynan served as a crucial hub in trade networks, fostering cultural exchange. Archaeological evidence reveals insights into settlement patterns and societal organization, with questions arising about the environmental impact of mining practices.

  • Cultural

    During the Copper Age, Feynan in Jordan held significant cultural importance as a hub for trade and exchange. Its strategic location facilitated interactions between diverse civilizations, leading to the exchange of ideas, technologies, and cultural practices. The mining and processing of copper in Feynan not only contributed to the region's economic prosperity but also shaped its social fabric, fostering a rich tapestry of traditions and customs. The presence of ancient settlements and artifacts in Feynan attests to its role as a center of cultural diffusion, where different societies converged, leaving behind a lasting legacy of shared heritage and collective identity.

  • Geological

    From a geological perspective, Feynan in Jordan offers a fascinating landscape shaped by millions of years of geological processes. The region's rugged mountains, deep wadis, and unique rock formations bear witness to the tectonic activity and erosion that have sculpted the terrain over time. Feynan's geological features likely played a crucial role in the formation and concentration of copper deposits, influencing human settlement patterns and economic activities during the Copper Age. The presence of mineral deposits in Feynan underscores its geological significance, providing valuable resources that have been exploited by ancient and modern civilizations alike. Studying Feynan's geology offers insights into Earth's dynamic processes and their impact on shaping both the natural environment and human history in the region.

Hammamat Afra

About 26 kilometers north of Tafila, are the thermal hot springs Hammamat Afra. It contains one of the richest sources of hot springs water in the region. Fifteen springs emerge from the ground to fill the air with beneficial minerals as well as the therapeutic use of the water itself on the body. The area is also filled with cascading waterfalls and natural water slides each emptying into soothing, therapeutic pools formed naturally by the water.

  • Historical

    Historically, Hammamat Afra in Jordan holds significant importance as a site that has been utilized for its therapeutic properties for centuries. Dating back to ancient times, the hot springs were frequented by various civilizations, including the Nabateans and Romans, who recognized and capitalized on the healing benefits of the mineral-rich waters. The presence of archaeological remains around the springs attests to the long-standing tradition of wellness practices in the area, including the construction of bathing facilities and temples dedicated to health deities. Today, Hammamat Afra continues to draw visitors seeking relaxation, rejuvenation, and relief from ailments such as rheumatism and skin conditions, making it not only a historical landmark but also a center for wellness and holistic healing in the region.

  • Wellness

    At Hammamat Afra, visitors can find a tranquil oasis surrounded by Jordan's desert landscape. The main attraction is the natural hot springs themselves, which are rich in minerals, particularly sulfur, known for their therapeutic properties. Bathing in these mineral-rich waters is believed to offer various health benefits, including relief from rheumatism, arthritis, and skin conditions. The site also features facilities for visitors, such as bathing areas and changing rooms, to enhance the experience of relaxation and wellness. Additionally, Hammamat Afra provides opportunities for visitors to immerse themselves in nature, with scenic views of the surrounding desert terrain, creating a serene and peaceful atmosphere conducive to healing and rejuvenation.


Today, Jerash celebrates a 14-day festival of culture and the arts during July and August each year in which many internationally known artists are invited to participate in array of plays, poetry readings, opera and musical concerts. Moreover, this ancient Roman city is also under review to be added to the UNESCO World Heritage list.

  • Historical

    This is one of the best-preserved Roman cities in the world and during Alexander the Great’s reign, it had a population of 15,000 – 20,000. With all its gates still standing, along with the paved streets, colonnades, walls, theatres, forums, temples, and churches, one can feel the spirit of the past and almost hear echoes of a time long ago. Watch history come to life while gladiators and charioteers from the Roman Army and Chariot Experience perform before the crowd in the massive arena known as the Hippodrome. Although it was not on a major trade route, the ancient city was of great wealth and importance because of its fertile soil. Even today, the area is rich with an abundance of groves and orchards. Figs, apples, plums, berries and olives all grow in the surrounding hillsides.

  • Cultural

    Jerash, culturally, presents a fascinating blend of influences spanning millennia. From its ancient origins as Gerasa, a Hellenistic city, to its later Roman and Byzantine periods, the city has absorbed and reflected diverse cultural elements. Its well-preserved ruins not only attest to the architectural prowess of ancient civilizations but also serve as a testament to the daily life, beliefs, and practices of its inhabitants. The city's theaters, temples, and public spaces offer insights into entertainment, religion, and social gatherings in antiquity. Furthermore, Jerash's modern cultural scene is vibrant, with events like the Jerash Festival of Culture and Arts showcasing Jordanian traditions, music, dance, and arts, fostering a sense of cultural pride and identity among its residents and visitors alike.

  • Religious

    Jerash has played a significant role in the religious landscape of the region throughout history. In ancient times, the city was home to temples dedicated to various Greco-Roman deities, reflecting the polytheistic beliefs of the inhabitants. With the spread of Christianity, Jerash became an important center of early Christian communities, evidenced by the construction of churches and the presence of Christian symbols in the archaeological remains. The city's Christian heritage is particularly notable during the Byzantine period when several churches were built, attesting to the growing influence of Christianity in the region. Today, Jerash's religious significance continues, with its ancient temples and churches serving as reminders of the diverse religious traditions that have shaped the city's history. Additionally, the modern-day population of Jerash represents a mix of religious backgrounds, contributing to the city's cultural and religious diversity.

  • The Arch of Hadrian


  • The Northren Theater


  • The Southren Theatre


  • The Oval Plaza


  • The Colonnaded Street (The Cardo)



Nestled atop a rugged hill overlooking the Dead Sea Valley, Kerak Castle in Jordan is a striking relic of the Crusader era. Built in 1142, its strategic location along ancient trade routes has made it a coveted prize throughout history, the castle provides an interesting insight into the struggles for the Holy Land between the Crusaders and the Muslims. This imposing fortress embodies tales of intrigue and religious significance, attracting visitors eager to explore its rich heritage.

  • Historical

    Kerak, nestled along the ancient caravan routes linking Egypt and Syria, has been coveted by numerous civilizations throughout its storied past. Its perch almost 1000 meters above the Dead Sea Valley rendered it a formidable strategic asset. Notably, the Crusader castle, erected in 1142, stands as a testament to the historical conflicts over the Holy Land. This imposing fortress provides invaluable insights into the struggles between the Crusaders and Muslims for control of the region.

  • Cultural

    Kerak Castle serves as a poignant symbol of centuries of civilization and conflict, embodying the rich cultural tapestry of the region. Its haunting legends and lore add depth to its cultural significance, drawing visitors to explore its ancient ruins and unravel its mysteries. The castle's role in shaping the cultural landscape of Jordan is undeniable, offering a glimpse into the enduring heritage of the area amidst its rugged beauty.

  • Religious

    The Castle stands as a stark reminder of the religious strife that has long plagued the Holy Land. The Crusades and subsequent battles for control left an indelible mark on the region's religious landscape, with Kerak bearing witness to these tumultuous times. Today, the castle serves as a pilgrimage site for those seeking to connect with the spiritual legacy of the past, tracing the footsteps of those who fought and prayed amidst its ancient walls.

Little Petra

Locates amidst the rugged landscape of Jordan, Little Petra stands as a testament to ancient civilizations and their ingenuity. This smaller counterpart to the grandeur of Petra itself, known for its white-colored rocks, served as a vital caravan station for traders in antiquity. Let's delve deeper into the historical, cultural, and religious significance of this remarkable site.

  • Historical

    Little Petra's history traces back to the eighth millennium BC, when prehistoric communities settled in the area known as "Baydah." This ancient Neolithic site, one of the earliest cooperative villages on record, reflects the early human settlements in the region. Later, during the Nabataean period, Little Petra thrived as an essential caravan station and a preparatory site for traders en route to Petra. Triclinums, carved into the rocks of the Siq, provided accommodation for travelers, highlighting the area's strategic importance in ancient trade routes.

  • Cultural

    Little Petra's architectural style, reminiscent of its larger counterpart Petra, showcases the cultural legacy of the Nabataean civilization. The carved tricliniums and intricate rock-cut structures stand as testament to the craftsmanship and engineering prowess of the ancient inhabitants. Moreover, the name "Little Petra," coined by archaeologists, underscores its significance as a smaller yet equally captivating site, offering insights into the daily life and commercial activities of the ancient Nabataeans.

  • Archaeological

    During the Nabataean period, Little Petra emerged as a vital hub along trade routes, evident in the carved tricliniums and rock-cut tombs that pepper the landscape. Archaeological excavations have unearthed artifacts and architectural features shedding light on daily life, commerce, and religious customs of the Nabataean people. These findings contribute to our understanding of ancient trade networks, urban planning, and cultural exchange in the region. Moreover, ongoing archaeological research continues to uncover new discoveries, further enriching our understanding of Little Petra's role in antiquity. Through meticulous excavation and analysis, archaeologists strive to piece together the complexities of ancient civilizations that once thrived within this remarkable site. As a testament to human ingenuity and resilience, Little Petra remains a treasure trove of archaeological wonders waiting to be explored and understood.

  • Geological

    Little Petra's landscape is characterized by its distinctive white-colored rocks, which lend the area its local name, "Baydah" or "the white one." These rocks, composed primarily of sandstone and limestone, have been shaped over millions of years through natural processes such as erosion and sedimentation. The rugged terrain of Little Petra, carved by ancient watercourses and geological forces, provides a dramatic backdrop to its archaeological treasures. Moreover, the geological features of Little Petra have influenced its hydrology, contributing to the availability of water in the region. Careful "harvesting" of water resources was essential for sustaining life and facilitating trade in this arid environment. Understanding the geological characteristics of Little Petra enhances our appreciation of its archaeological remains and the challenges faced by ancient civilizations in harnessing natural resources for survival.


The hot springs here have been enjoyed for therapeutic and leisure purposes for thousands of years. Popular with both locals and tourists alike, the springs are located 264 meters below sea level in one of the most breath-taking desert oasis’s in the world. Thousands of visiting bathers come each year to enjoy the mineral rich waters of these hyper-thermal waterfalls.

  • Historical

    Ma'In Hot Springs in Jordan holds a profound historical significance, with records of its therapeutic waters dating back thousands of years. Ancient civilizations revered these springs for their purported healing properties, attracting visitors seeking relief from various ailments. Historical accounts suggest that the springs were frequented by figures from antiquity, including Herod the Great, who allegedly sought solace in their soothing waters. Over the centuries, Ma'In Hot Springs continued to be cherished by locals and travelers alike, serving as a cultural landmark deeply ingrained in the region's history.

  • Wellness

    Ma'In Hot Springs offers a blissful retreat for wellness enthusiasts seeking relaxation and rejuvenation. Nestled amidst breathtaking desert landscapes, these mineral-rich waters provide a sanctuary for visitors to unwind and recharge. With temperatures ranging from warm to hot, the springs are believed to offer therapeutic benefits for the body and mind, promoting stress relief, muscle relaxation, and overall well-being. Whether soaking in the natural pools, indulging in spa treatments, or simply enjoying the tranquil surroundings, a visit to Ma'In Hot Springs promises a holistic wellness experience amidst the captivating beauty of Jordan's desert oasis.


Travel along the 5,000 year old King’s Highway to Madaba better known as the “City of Mosaics”. Hundreds of mosaics from the 5th through the 7th century are scattered throughout the city. Most notable are the Church of St. George and Church of the Apostles.

  • Historical

    Madaba is a city steeped in history, its origins tracing back thousands of years to the Bronze Age. Over millennia, it has been shaped by the influence of numerous civilizations, including the Moabites, Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines, each leaving an indelible mark on its cultural landscape. Situated strategically along ancient trade routes, Madaba emerged as a vibrant hub of activity and exchange, facilitating the flow of goods, ideas, and people. This advantageous position contributed to its prosperity and cosmopolitan character, fostering a melting pot of cultures where diverse traditions coexisted and blended harmoniously. However, it is during the Byzantine period that Madaba's artistic achievements truly flourished. Renowned for its exquisite mosaic artistry, the city reached unparalleled heights of craftsmanship and creativity. Byzantine-era mosaics adorned the floors of churches, public buildings, and private homes, showcasing intricate designs and vibrant colors. Beyond their decorative appeal, these mosaics served as powerful expressions of religious narratives and symbolic meanings, reflecting the spiritual and cultural beliefs of the time. Today, Madaba's mosaic heritage stands as a tangible testament to its artistic prowess and enduring legacy, drawing visitors from around the world to marvel at its intricate beauty and profound historical significance.

  • Cultural

    Madaba Museum:
    It is an essential stop for those seeking an authentic glimpse into Jordan's heritage. Housed within the walls of an ancient chapel adorned with mesmerizing mosaic masterpieces, the museum offers a truly immersive experience. Marvel at the intricate designs and vibrant colors that adorn the chapel's interior, transporting you to a bygone era of artistic brilliance. But the museum's treasures extend beyond its mosaic collages. Step further into history as you explore displays of traditional Jordanian dresses, intricately embroidered with patterns that speak to centuries of craftsmanship and cultural identity. Admire the exquisite jewelry and pottery from various ages, each artifact a testament to the creativity and ingenuity of Jordan's artisans throughout history. From delicate earrings to ornate vases, every item in the museum tells a story of Jordan's past, inviting visitors to delve deeper into the country's rich cultural heritage. Whether you're a history enthusiast, an art lover, or simply curious about Jordanian traditions, a visit to this museum promises to be a captivating journey of discovery and appreciation.

  • Religious

    During the Byzantine era:
    Madaba became renowned for its exquisite mosaic floors, which adorned churches and public buildings throughout the city. The most famous of these mosaics is the Madaba Map, discovered in the 19th century in the Church of St. George. Dating back to the 6th century AD, this mosaic map depicts the Holy Land, providing invaluable insights into the geography, architecture, and religious sites of the time. It is one of the oldest surviving maps of the Holy Land and remains a significant historical and archaeological treasure.

    Islamic period:
    Madaba's importance continued through the Islamic period, with the city serving as a vibrant center of trade, culture, and scholarship. Over the centuries, Madaba witnessed the rise and fall of empires, enduring conquests, and transitions of power. Today, its rich historical heritage, coupled with its modern amenities and warm hospitality, makes Madaba a captivating destination for travelers seeking to explore Jordan's diverse history and culture.

  • Churches

    Church of St. George:
    Imagine the excitement, when builders came across this old church in 1884. Adorning the floor was an amazing mosaic representing the oldest map of Palestine in existence along with all the major historical sites from Egypt to Palestine. Crafted in 560AD, this original masterpiece once contained more than two million brightly colored pieces.

    Church of the Apostles:
    This small church contains one of Madaba’s most beautiful mosaics dedicated to the Twelve Apostles. The mosaic is known as "Personification of the Sea" and it vividly depicts a woman emerging from the sea, surrounded by mythical aquatic creatures and a hodgepodge of rams, bulls, parrots and exotic vegetation.

    The Church of the Virgin Mary:
    Located near Madaba's center, is a cherished landmark dedicated to the revered figure. Built with meticulous care, its architecture and artwork reflect centuries of devotion, this sacred space has been a sanctuary for worship and reflection, adorned with beautiful frescoes, stained glass windows, and ornate carvings. Visitors are welcomed to bask in the serene ambiance, finding solace in the presence of the Virgin Mary and the spiritual legacy she embodies.

  • Madaba

    The City

  • The St. George Church


  • The Holy Land Mosaics Map



Here you will find the memorial of Moses, and the place from which he viewed the Promised Land. Think back to the time when Moses marched with his staff of the Israelites, all the way north from Egypt to Mount Nebo. On top of the mountain, a Christian church was built between the 4th and 6th century A.D. which is considered to be the most valuable church in the whole region, due to the fact it contains beautifully constructed mosaic walls and a superb mosaic floor. On a clear day from the top of the mountain, you can see Jerusalem, Jericho, and the Dead Sea

  • Historical

    Mount Nebo, situated in western Jordan, holds a significant place in history, with traces of human settlement dating back millennia. Archaeological excavations have revealed remnants of ancient civilizations, shedding light on the region's rich past. Among these findings is a Byzantine church adorned with remarkably well-preserved mosaics, offering glimpses into the artistic and religious practices of the time. These archaeological treasures provide valuable insights into the cultural heritage and historical development of Mount Nebo and its surrounding areas.

  • Cultural

    Mount Nebo serves as a cultural crossroads, where various traditions converge, leaving indelible marks on its landscape. Over the centuries, it has been a site of pilgrimage and spiritual contemplation for people of diverse faiths, including Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Its significance transcends religious boundaries, drawing visitors from around the world to admire its breathtaking vistas and explore its archaeological wonders. The enduring allure of Mount Nebo lies not only in its religious associations but also in its ability to inspire awe and wonder, fostering a deeper appreciation for the cultural heritage of the Middle East.

  • Religious

    For adherents of the Abrahamic faiths, Mount Nebo holds profound religious significance, steeped in the narratives of ancient scriptures. According to tradition, it was atop this sacred peak that Moses stood and beheld the Promised Land before his passing. For Christians, Mount Nebo is a place of pilgrimage, commemorating the legacy of Moses and serving as a symbol of hope and spiritual renewal. Its mention in the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and the Quran underscores its importance as a sacred site revered by multiple religious traditions. Today, pilgrims and worshippers continue to flock to Mount Nebo, seeking solace, inspiration, and a connection to the divine amidst its timeless beauty.

  • The Memorial of Moses

    Mt. Nebo


Within an hour’s drive from Madaba along the picturesque Kings’ Highway, is Mukawir, the hilltop stronghold of Herod the Great. Upon Herod’s death, his son Herod Antipas inherited the fortress and it is from here that he ordered John the Baptist to be beheaded after Salome’s fateful dance of the seven veils.

  • Historical

    Mukawir, also known as Machaerus, holds a significant place in history as an ancient hilltop fortress located in modern-day Jordan. Originally built by the Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus in the 1st century BCE, it later became a stronghold of King Herod the Great. The fortress played a pivotal role in the region's history, serving as a strategic military outpost and a symbol of power and control. Mukawir's historical significance is further underscored by its association with the biblical account of the execution of John the Baptist, who was imprisoned and beheaded at the request of Herod Antipas. Archaeological excavations at the site have unearthed remains of fortifications, palaces, and other structures, offering insights into its storied past and contributing to our understanding of ancient Judean architecture and military infrastructure.

  • Cultural

    Mukawir's cultural significance lies in its status as a tangible link to the region's rich heritage and a testament to the architectural prowess of ancient civilizations. Perched atop a rugged hill overlooking the Dead Sea, the fortress commands awe-inspiring views of the surrounding landscape, captivating visitors with its dramatic setting and historical allure. The site's cultural importance is further enhanced by its role as a backdrop for various legends, myths, and historical narratives that have shaped the collective consciousness of the region. Today, Mukawir stands as a cultural landmark, attracting tourists, historians, and archaeologists alike, all drawn to its captivating blend of history, heritage, and natural beauty.

  • Religious

    Mukawir holds religious significance as the reputed site of the imprisonment and execution of John the Baptist, a central figure in Christianity. According to biblical accounts, John was arrested by Herod Antipas and imprisoned at Machaerus, where he met his tragic end. His death is recorded in the Gospels as a consequence of his outspoken condemnation of Herod's marriage to Herodias, his brother's wife. For Christians, Mukawir serves as a pilgrimage site commemorating the martyrdom of John the Baptist and honoring his unwavering faith and commitment to righteousness. The site's religious resonance is palpable, as visitors reflect on the sacrifices made by John and the enduring legacy of his teachings. Today, Mukawir remains a place of spiritual pilgrimage, where the faithful come to pay homage to one of Christianity's most revered saints and to seek inspiration in his example of courage and conviction.


Nestled within the Jordan Valley lies the ancient city of Pella, a treasure trove of archaeological wonders dating back to the Stone Age. Continuously inhabited for millennia, Pella's rich history and diverse cultural heritage make it one of Jordan's most significant archaeological sites, with ongoing efforts to secure its place on the UNESCO World Heritage list.

  • Historical

    Pella's history unfolds like a tapestry of human civilization, stretching back to prehistoric times when it was inhabited by hunters and gatherers. Over the centuries, it evolved into a thriving Neolithic settlement, drawing the attention of ancient civilizations such as the Egyptians and later flourishing as a vital hub on trade routes linking Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and the Mediterranean. Under Greek and Roman rule, Pella experienced periods of growth and reconstruction, only to face destruction by natural disasters like earthquakes. Despite these setbacks, Pella endured through Byzantine and Islamic periods until the Ottoman invasion marked the end of its six millennia of continuous settlement.

  • Cultural

    Pella's cultural significance is evident in its diverse layers of history, reflected in the remnants of Chalcolithic settlements, Bronze and Iron-age walled cities, Byzantine churches, early Islamic residences, and a medieval mosque. The excavation of luxury items like ivory sculptures and gold jewelry attests to its prosperity and cultural exchange throughout the ages. Moreover, the city's strategic location along trade routes facilitated the exchange of ideas, customs, and goods, contributing to its vibrant cultural tapestry.

  • Religious

    While Pella's religious significance may not be as pronounced as other ancient sites, its history intersects with religious narratives and influences. The city's destruction by the Jews in 83 BC due to its inhabitants' refusal to adopt Jewish customs reflects religious tensions of the time. Additionally, the presence of Byzantine churches and an early Islamic mosque highlights Pella's role as a center of religious activity and spiritual expression throughout different periods of history. Today, these religious structures stand as silent witnesses to the diverse religious practices that once thrived within the ancient city.


Nestled within the rugged landscapes of modern-day Jordan lies Petra, often referred to as the "Rose Red City." This UNESCO World Heritage Site stands as a testament to the ingenuity and craftsmanship of the Nabataeans, who established it as their capital over 2,000 years ago. Petra's breathtaking beauty and architectural marvels have earned it a place on the bucket lists of travelers worldwide, with Smithsonian Magazine recognizing it as one of the "28 Places to See Before You Die."

  • Historical

    Petra's history is a saga of ancient civilizations and remarkable engineering feats. Founded over two millennia ago by the Nabataeans, Petra flourished as a center of trade and culture, hidden among the canyons of the region for centuries. The Nabataeans strategically diverted trade routes, ensuring Petra's central position in the ancient world's commerce. The city's extensive archaeological remains, including the Treasury, Royal section, theaters, and palaces, provide glimpses into its vibrant past and the sophisticated society that once thrived within its sandstone walls.

  • Cultural

    Petra's cultural significance extends beyond its architectural grandeur, encompassing a rich tapestry of traditions, beliefs, and customs. The city's diverse influences, from Nabataean, Greek, Roman, and Arabian cultures, shaped its unique identity as a melting pot of civilizations. Visitors to Petra can explore its labyrinthine streets, marvel at its rock-cut monuments, and immerse themselves in the sights and sounds of an ancient metropolis. Moreover, Petra's status as a UNESCO World Heritage Site underscores its universal value as a cultural treasure worthy of preservation and exploration.

  • Religious

    While originally founded for secular purposes, Petra's history intertwines with religious narratives spanning multiple faiths. The Nabataeans, Petra's ancient inhabitants, practiced a polytheistic religion, worshiping deities like Dushara and Al-Uzza in rock-cut temples and sacred spaces. With the advent of Christianity, Petra witnessed the construction of churches and monastic complexes, evidencing the city's Christian communities. Later, during the Islamic era, Petra underwent further religious transformations under Muslim rule, with mosques and Islamic architecture appearing alongside existing structures. This religious evolution reflects Petra's role as a nexus of cultural exchange and spiritual significance throughout the ages, where visitors today can hike to sites associated with biblical figures like Aaron, explore rock-cut temples, and ponder the diverse faiths that once thrived within its ancient walls.

  • The Treasury


  • The Royal Tombs


  • The Monastery


  • The Theatre


  • The Colors



Located in the heart of Jordan lies the historic town of Shoubak, home to a renowned Crusader castle that stands as a testament to the region's rich heritage. Constructed in 1115 AD by Baldwin I, this imposing fortress offers visitors a glimpse into the daily life and architectural prowess of the Crusader era.

  • Historical

    Shoubak's Crusader castle holds a pivotal place in history, symbolizing the medieval European incursions into the Holy Land during the Crusades. Built atop a small hill in 1115 AD by Baldwin I, the fortress served as a strategic stronghold in the region. Within its walls, visitors can explore ruins of two churches, cisterns, rainwater pipes, and millstones used for pressing olives, providing valuable insights into the daily activities and infrastructure of the time. The presence of a set of stairs leading down 375 steps to a spring below the castle speaks to the fortress's ingenuity in water management and defensive strategy.

  • Cultural

    Shoubak Castle offers a window into the cultural fabric of the Crusader period, where European and Middle Eastern influences converged. The fortress's architecture reflects a blend of Crusader military engineering and local building techniques, showcasing the exchange of knowledge and ideas between different cultures. Within its walls, visitors can envision the bustling life of a medieval garrison town, with activities ranging from religious worship in the castle's churches to agricultural practices such as olive pressing. Shoubak's cultural significance lies not only in its architectural splendor but also in its role as a cultural crossroads where diverse traditions and customs intersected.

  • Religious

    While primarily a military stronghold, Shoubak Castle also holds religious significance as a site of worship and spiritual contemplation. The presence of two churches within the fortress attests to the importance of religious faith in the lives of its inhabitants. These churches served as centers of communal gathering and religious observance for the Crusader garrison stationed at Shoubak. Additionally, the castle's proximity to natural springs and water sources underscored the importance of water in religious rituals and purification practices. Today, visitors to Shoubak Castle can explore these religious spaces and reflect on the intersection of faith and fortification in the medieval world.

Shoumari Reserve

Nestled within the diverse landscapes of Jordan, Shoumari Reserve stands as a beacon of conservation and biodiversity. Established in 1975 by the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature, this wildlife sanctuary boasts a rich tapestry of flora and fauna, offering visitors a glimpse into Jordan's natural wonders.

  • Biodiversity & Flora

    Shoumari Reserve is a haven for biodiversity, harboring over 193 species of flora that thrive within its protected boundaries. The reserve's diverse ecosystems provide habitats for a wide array of plant species, contributing to the preservation of Jordan's natural heritage and ecological balance.

  • Wildlife Conservation

    At the forefront of wildlife conservation efforts in Jordan, Shoumari Reserve is home to six species of carnivores, including the red fox, jackal, wolf, hyena, caracal, and wild cat. Additionally, the reserve serves as a breeding center for globally threatened and locally extinct wildlife such as the oryx, onagers (wild donkey), ostriches, and gazelles. Through conservation initiatives and habitat restoration, Shoumari plays a vital role in safeguarding these species for future generations.

  • Bird Watching Tower

    Shoumari Reserve offers bird enthusiasts a paradise for observation, with sightings of majestic species like the Imperial Eagle, Pallid Harrier, and Egyptian Vulture. An observation tower within the reserve provides visitors with a perfect vantage point to spot the diverse birdlife and other wildlife that call Shoumari home. From this elevated perch, visitors can immerse themselves in the natural splendor of the reserve and witness the beauty of Jordan's avian inhabitants in their natural habitat.

Umm Al Rasas

Nestled within Jordan's historical landscape lies an archaeological treasure waiting to be fully unearthed—the ancient site that began as a Roman military camp and evolved into a town by the 5th century. This site, with remnants spanning the Roman, Byzantine, and Early Muslim periods, offers glimpses into centuries of human history and cultural evolution. While much of it remains unexcavated, its significance is undeniable, with 16 churches and well-preserved mosaic floors offering tantalizing insights into the region's past.

  • Historical

    This archaeological site's historical significance is multifaceted, tracing back to its origins as a Roman military camp that later burgeoned into a town during the 5th century. Through the layers of time, remnants from the Roman, Byzantine, and Early Muslim periods reveal the site's strategic importance and its role in shaping the socio-political landscape of the region. The presence of a fortified Roman military camp speaks to the military prowess and territorial ambitions of ancient empires, while the site's evolution into a town reflects the resilience and adaptability of its inhabitants amidst changing historical contexts.

  • Cultural

    The cultural richness of this archaeological site is palpable, evident in the diverse architectural styles, artistic expressions, and religious practices preserved within its confines. The presence of 16 churches, adorned with well-preserved mosaic floors, serves as a testament to the spiritual and cultural vibrancy of the community that once thrived here. Particularly noteworthy is the mosaic floor of the Church of Saint Stephen, featuring intricate representations of towns in the region—a vivid reflection of the interconnectedness and cultural exchange that characterized life in this ancient settlement.

  • Religious

    Within the archaeological site's historical layers lie echoes of religious devotion and spiritual fervor, embodied in the 16 churches scattered throughout its expanse. These churches, some boasting remarkably preserved mosaic floors, offer glimpses into the religious practices and iconography of the Roman, Byzantine, and Early Muslim periods. The mosaic floor of the Church of Saint Stephen stands out for its depiction of towns in the region, symbolizing the intersection of faith and community identity. Through these religious artifacts and architectural marvels, visitors can trace the spiritual journey of past inhabitants and immerse themselves in the sacred heritage of the site.

Umm Qais

Umm Qais, formerly known as Gadara, holds a significant place in history as the site of the renowned Gadarene swine miracle. Nestled atop a majestic hill, it offers a panoramic vista of the Jordan Valley and the Sea of Galilee, making it a captivating destination for history enthusiasts and spiritual seekers alike.

  • Historical

    Gadara, later renamed Umm Qais, flourished as a cultural hub in ancient times. It was celebrated for its contributions to literature and philosophy, being the residence of esteemed figures like Theodorus, who established a prominent rhetorical school in Rome. The remnants of its glorious past are evident in the impressive colonnade streets, vaulted terraces, and the remnants of two grand theaters that adorn the landscape.

  • Cultural

    The cultural significance of Gadara/Umm Qais transcends its architectural marvels. It served as a melting pot of ideas and creativity, attracting poets, philosophers, and scholars from far and wide. This convergence of intellect fostered a vibrant cultural milieu, leaving an indelible mark on the region's heritage.

  • Religious

    Beyond its secular renown, Umm Qais holds profound religious significance, particularly in Christian tradition. The site gained prominence due to the biblical account of the Gadarene swine miracle, where Jesus healed two demon-possessed men, leading to the infamous incident involving a herd of swine rushing into the sea. This event has imbued the region with spiritual resonance, drawing pilgrims and believers seeking to connect with the divine narrative that unfolded amidst its ancient stones.

Wadi AlHasa

Locates within the rugged terrain of Jordan lies Wadi Al Hasa, a breathtaking natural wonder that stands as the country's longest and most captivating wadi. Dubbed as Jordan's own natural water park, Wadi Al Hasa offers a serene escape into a world of cascading streams, foaming rapids, and hidden pools of paradise, beckoning adventurers to explore its enchanting depths.

  • Historical

    Wadi Al Hasa bears witness to a rich historical tapestry that dates back centuries. Throughout the ages, it has served as a vital lifeline for communities inhabiting its vicinity, providing a source of sustenance and a route for trade and transportation. Its winding paths and lush vegetation have echoed the footsteps of ancient travelers, leaving behind traces of their journeys etched into the landscape.

  • Cultural

    Embedded within the cultural fabric of Jordan, Wadi Al Hasa holds significance beyond its natural allure. It is intertwined with the traditions and customs of the local communities who have long revered its pristine beauty. Stories and folklore abound, passed down through generations, recounting tales of adventure and wonder within the wadi's embrace. Today, it remains a cherished destination for locals and visitors alike, a testament to the enduring bond between the people and the land.

  • Geological

    Geologically, Wadi Al Hasa is a marvel of nature, shaped over millennia by the relentless forces of water and time. The wadi's meandering course cuts through rugged cliffs and rocky outcrops, carving deep gorges and breathtaking canyons along its path. Shallow streams cascade over smooth rocks, giving way to roaring rapids and tranquil pools that dot the landscape. This dynamic interplay of water and rock creates an ever-changing tapestry of beauty, inviting adventurers to swim, wade, climb, and explore its mesmerizing terrain.

Wadi bin Hammad

Locates within the ancient city of Kerak in Jordan lies Wadi Ibn Hammad, a hidden gem that offers a unique and enchanting hiking experience. Often likened to hiking in a subtropical rainforest, Wadi Ibn Hammad captivates adventurers with its lush vegetation, cascading waterfalls, and breathtaking vistas, making it a must-visit destination for nature enthusiasts.

  • Historical

    Wadi Ibn Hammad holds a place of historical significance, intertwined with the rich tapestry of Kerak's past. Throughout history, it has served as a vital lifeline for local communities, providing water, shelter, and sustenance to those who called its verdant valleys home. Traces of ancient civilizations can be found amidst its rocky cliffs and winding paths, echoing the footsteps of generations past.

  • Cultural

    Embedded within the cultural fabric of Kerak, Wadi Ibn Hammad is steeped in tradition and folklore. Tales of adventure and wonder abound, passed down through the ages, each adding to the mystique of this natural wonder. Local communities have long revered the wadi as a sacred sanctuary, where the beauty of nature is celebrated and cherished. Today, it remains a cherished destination for both locals and visitors, a testament to the enduring bond between the people and the land.

  • Geological

    Geologically, Wadi Ibn Hammad is a testament to the remarkable power of water and time. As visitors venture into its depths, they are greeted by a veritable oasis of greenery, with plants and palm trees clinging to the canyon walls in a riot of vibrant hues. Water seeps from every crevice, painting the underlying rock surfaces in shades of red, while crystal-like stalactites dangle from above, glistening in the sunlight. Around every corner lies a new and breathtaking view, inviting hikers to immerse themselves in the awe-inspiring beauty of this natural wonderland.

Wadi Ghwair

Locates amidst the rugged terrain of Jordan lies Wadi Ghwair, a hidden gem renowned for its enchanting hanging garden and serene ambiance. Despite being one of the smaller wadis in the region, Wadi Ghwair captivates visitors with its lush vegetation, picturesque scenery, and unique geological features, offering a tranquil retreat from the hustle and bustle of everyday life.

  • Historical

    Wadi Ghwair's history is intertwined with the ancient landscapes of Jordan, bearing witness to the passage of time and the footsteps of those who have traversed its verdant valleys. Throughout the ages, it has served as a sanctuary for weary travelers and a source of inspiration for poets and artists, each leaving their mark on its storied landscape.

  • Cultural

    Embedded within the cultural fabric of Jordan, Wadi Ghwair holds significance beyond its natural beauty. It is a place of reverence and wonder, where the beauty of nature is celebrated and cherished by local communities and visitors alike. Stories and legends abound, passed down through generations, each adding to the mystique of this enchanting oasis.

  • Geological

    Geologically, Wadi Ghwair is a marvel of nature, shaped by the gentle caress of water and the passage of time. As visitors venture into its depths, they are greeted by an awe-inspiring hanging garden, where moss-covered canyon walls give way to cascading palm trees, reeds, and oleander shrubs that form a natural curtain overhead. The stream, though intermittent, adds to the wadi's allure, vanishing beneath gravel and small rocks only to reappear sporadically along the way, inviting explorers to uncover its hidden treasures with each twist and turn of the path.

Wadi Al-Mujib

Nestled adjacent to the Dead Sea, Wadi Al Mujib stands as a testament to the awe-inspiring beauty and biodiversity of Jordan's natural landscapes. Spanning from 900 meters above sea level to an astonishing 400 meters below, this remarkable area is a sanctuary of unparalleled ecological diversity, offering visitors a glimpse into the rich tapestry of life that thrives within its depths.

  • Historical

    Originally established by the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature, Wadi Al Mujib has a storied history rooted in conservation and environmental stewardship. Over the years, it has evolved into a vital sanctuary for a myriad of plant and animal species, serving as a testament to the importance of preserving and protecting Jordan's natural heritage for future generations to enjoy.

  • Cultural

    Embedded within the cultural fabric of Jordan, Wadi Al Mujib holds significance as a cherished natural treasure revered by locals and visitors alike. Its breathtaking landscapes and diverse ecosystems have inspired awe and wonder for centuries, serving as a source of inspiration for poets, artists, and nature enthusiasts who flock to its shores in search of adventure and enlightenment.

  • Geological

    Geologically, Wadi Al Mujib is a marvel of nature, with its dramatic topography ranging from towering cliffs to meandering waterways. The wadi supports a staggering array of plant and animal species, including rare orchids, migratory birds, and elusive predators such as the Syrian wolf and striped hyena. With four main trails offering varying degrees of difficulty, visitors can explore the wadi's wonders at their own pace, immersing themselves in its breathtaking beauty and discovering the rich biodiversity that calls this pristine wilderness home. It is good mentioning, there are 4 main trails traversing the wadi all with varying degrees of difficulty: Siq Trail, Malaqi Trail, Ibex Trail, and Mujib trail.

Wadi Rum

Locates amidst the arid expanse of Jordan's desert landscape lies Wadi Rum, a captivating realm known as "The Valley of the Moon." As the largest wadi in Jordan, Wadi Rum beckons travelers with its timeless beauty and storied history, offering a glimpse into the ancient traditions of the Bedouin people and serving as a backdrop for pivotal moments in history, including the Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in World War I.

  • Historical

    Wadi Rum's history is deeply intertwined with the tumultuous events of the past, serving as a strategic stronghold during periods of conflict and upheaval. It was here, amidst the towering rock formations and sweeping dunes, that Prince Faisal Bin Hussein and T.E. Lawrence established their headquarters during the Arab Revolt, shaping the course of history and inspiring generations to come.

  • Cultural

    At the heart of Wadi Rum lies a vibrant tapestry of Bedouin culture, where ancient traditions and customs continue to thrive amidst the harsh desert landscape. The Bedouin people, renowned for their legendary hospitality, welcome visitors with open arms, sharing their rich heritage and time-honored traditions with those who venture into their desert home.

  • Geological

    In Wadi Rum, geology unfolds, with towering rocks and winding canyons unveiling millions of years. Amidst its barren facade, life thrives - from small plants to rare hyrax and ibex. At dawn and dusk, magic fills the air, illuminating ancient landmarks like the Seven Pillars of Wisdom. Wadi Rum beckons, a testament to nature's might and human resilience, inviting all to explore its timeless expanse.

  • Attractions

    Seven Pillars of Wisdom:
    With its seven fluted turrets, honors Lawrence's book and stands prominently visible from the road.

    Jebel Umm Ishrin:
    linked to the "Mother of Twenty", a 20-domed mountain, tells a local legend of a woman who outwitted suitors, acquiring its name from her story.

    Jebel Rum:
    Rising 1754 meters over Wadi Rum village, forms the western flank and entices climbers to explore parts of the ancient Thamudic Way to its summit.

  • Attractions

    Nabataeans' Temple:
    Ruins of a 2,000-year-old sanctuary dedicated to Lat, showcasing early evidence of Arab tribe architecture and the earliest discovered baths in Jordan.

    Lawrence’s Spring:
    Served as a crucial watering spot for caravans traversing between Syria and Arabia, alongside other springs in the vicinity.

    Jabal Umm Al Dami:
    Jordan's highest peak at 1,854 meters, stands proudly amidst Wadi Rum's iconic desert.